How do College Services Differ from High School Services?

Students with disabilities are entitled to accommodations in school, be it K- 12 (public) or post-secondary education. However the nature and delivery of those accommodations, as well as the distribution of responsibility, differ significantly between high school and college. The following table illustrates some of these differences.

High School   College
IDEA and Section 504 are the laws that mandate "free and appropriate public education" for all K-12 students, no matter what the ability level; education at this level is a right   The ADA and Section 504 guarantee equal access to post-secondary education by requiring "reasonable accommodations" to college students who are "otherwise qualified" as a student; education at this level is a privilege
The only qualification for public education is age; students with disabilities may qualify for special education   "Otherwise qualified" students must meet all entrance and academic progress requirements with or without reasonable accommodation; there is no "special education" in college
In order to meet the "free and appropriate public education" requirements, educational standards may be compromised by making such accommodations as shortening assignments, allowing students to use notes, books or other resources on tests when other students may not, or taking untimed tests   NO accommodation at the post-secondary level may reduce standards or in any way compromise the integrity of the course; accommodations must be deemed reasonable, and agreed upon by the student, the DS provider and the instructor; e.g. extended time for tests may be a reasonable accommodation, but untimed tests is not reasonable
Accommodations are driven by the Child Study Team, consisting of teachers, counselors, school psychologists, parents and the student, which develops an IEP or 504 Plan   There is no team, no plan, no notification of instructors except by the student, and parents are not involved in any way except at the written request of the student
Various levels of placement are available with varying levels of integration into the regular classroom; the student's "team" determines which placement is the "least restrictive environment" (required by IDEA)   Full integration with or without reasonable accommodations is the only option
A Student's plan, academic history and needs are shared with all teachers before s/he enters the class   Instructors will only be contacted by the college at the request of the student, and this request must be made for each instructor, for each course and renewed each semester; students may decline accommodations they do not need or want
Some graduation requirements may be waived if the student's disability specifically interferes with his/her ability to successfully complete that subject or class   Many colleges and/or programs have a process in place to determine eligibility for course substitutions when a student's disability affects that subject (e.g. foreign language), but waivers are not an option
Public schools must provide assessment services, physical, speech or other therapy, or personal care services needed while the student is in school   Personal care, medical, psychological and/or therapeutic services and other non-academic needs are the responsibility of the student
Teachers may be provided with educational information about a student's disability, or they may be expected to learn as much as they can about their student' s disability   The only information instructors are given by the college is what accommodations are appropriate, and then, only when requested by the student to do so; students may choose to disclose information about their disability, but instructors may not ask students about their condition, nor are they expected to gather information or "be informed"
The primary responsibility for identification, assessment (as appropriate) and determination of disability and for requesting accommodations is on the school   The primary responsibility for identification, assessment and determination of disability and for requesting accommodations is on the student